嚴守 0g 反式脂肪,心臟病殺手掰掰!

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進食過多的動物脂肪,會增加心血管疾病、癌症、糖尿病、肥胖症和其他慢性疾病的發病率。這是因為動物脂肪含較多膽固醇及飽和脂肪酸。相反,植物油像玉米、大豆、油菜子和葵花籽油等,因含較多不飽和脂肪酸,又沒有膽固醇,對身體造成的壞影響較少。

但是由於植物油的溶點較低,故為液態狀,不像牛油那樣方便塗抹於食物上,而且又容易變壞,食物若經植物油炸過後,不能儲存太久。針對這些缺點,食品工業界發明了「氫化植物油」 (即反式脂肪 / Trans Fat),氫化(Hydrogenation)是把蔬菜油內的軟脂肪(順式脂肪酸 Cis Fatty Acids)的化學構造改變為硬身的脂肪(化學構造上稱為反向式脂肪 Trans Fatty Acids)。以氫氣和某些金屬催化植物油,再加以高溫,變成「植物牛油」。

氫化油在日常生活中的使用範圍極為廣泛,但是據許多研究顥示,反式脂肪會升高血液中的壞膽固醇(LDL-Cholesterol,即是低密度脂蛋白),積存在血管內壁,令血液中的好固醇(HDLCholesterol,即高密度脂蛋白)下降,增加罹患心血管疾病或腦中風的風險,也會干擾免疫系統,產生各種過敏、自體免疫疾病,甚至誘發癌症。

因此,加拿大及美國都已規定食品包裝上應標示反式脂肪含量,美國紐約州甚至下令禁止使用反式脂肪,但目前在台灣還沒有明令規定,只能靠消費者自己避免,減少攝取含有反式脂肪的加工性食品。

比起也會升高人體壞膽固醇的飽和脂肪,反式脂肪對人體的傷害更為嚴重,因此較多國家已經要求食品製造商必須在產品上標注是否含有反式脂肪,美國加工食品內的反式脂肪已經幾乎消失(因為法令規定一定要誠實標示、而公眾也知道反式脂肪比飽和脂肪危險許多),並即將正式全面禁用,而也有多起因反式脂肪而引起的法律訴訟正在進行(主要是針對速食店進行的訴訟)。許多食品公司已經主動的停止在產品中使用反式脂肪,或是增加不含反式脂肪的產品線。

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避開反式脂肪

反式脂肪不存在於天然的油品裡,它主要存在於「部份氫化的植物油」,或是經過「高溫反覆油炸」的任何一切油品,最常見的就是人造奶油 (塗抹麵包、拌馬鈴薯泥)、植物酥油 (製作餅乾、麵包、冰淇淋)、氫化棕櫚油 (用來炸油條、薯條、洋芋片、巧克力、鹽穌雞、臭豆腐、炸排骨、炸麻花)。

另外,大家也要懂得看食物標籤,氫化植物油、部分氫化植物油、氫化脂肪 、氫化菜油、固體菜油、酥油、雪白奶油、氫化棕櫚油,margarine,shortening,partially hydrogenated vegetable oil,hydrogenated vegetable oil 等即含有反式脂肪,這些食品都應該盡量少食用。

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而在反式脂肪的地方,「早餐吃麥片」的挑選方式是 < 0.3 g ,因為政府的規範規定,0.3g 以下就可以標示 0g ,會有這樣的規定則是由於許多植物油在加熱後會產生微量的反式脂肪,並非廠商惡意使用人造奶油等油品,另外單從食品標示來說,0g 我們會無法認清是否是 0.1 或 0.2g ,所以這邊統一以 0.3g 以下為我們的挑選標準。

「姜倩玲營養師解釋:「目前除了反式脂肪頗受爭議外,大家對於其他數值修整為零的做法均可接受,因為事實上若是那麼低的含量,對照我們一天所需要的量,其實都已不構成影響。」」 原文網址


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